September 8 — October 29, 2016

November 10, 2016 — January 7, 2017

January 19 — March 9, 2017

April  6 — May 11, 2017

TERMINAL @ Western Front
Curated by Allison Collins

TERMINAL is a four-part installation project that examines single-user interfaces, and the influence of technology on the adaptation of new artistic forms.  The project addresses itself to an idea of what different hardware units, operating systems, and user environments have offered to artists and to the viewers, readers or users of their work.  Each iteration of the project considers a different computer interface, and related work (text-based programming of poetry, graphical user interfaces and early digital animation, online and peer sharing as virtual social practice formations and a parody of social media and its daily saturation of life).

Conceived as an exhibition in four parts, the project utilizes a single-user space at Western Front – our former ticket booth/reading room – to offer an intimate viewing experience that works away from the traditional spatial paradigm of a white cube. Launching September 8th, the first installation looks at media poetry, specifically programmed for computers, and features an installation of bpNichol's First Screening (1984), a digital publication written in Apple BASIC for home use on an Apple IIe.  

TERMINAL expands beyond the gallery space to include this website. TERMINAL 1.0 is embedded with a variant of the code for a series of Permutation Poems written by Brion Gysin that first appeared in 1960.  Rooted in the expansive and playful legacies of Nichol and Gysin, TERMINAL 1.0 also features work and reading event by artist and poet Tiziana La Melia, whose installation The Eyelash and the Monochrome has grown from her own computer use, and specifically her acknowledgment of Microsoft Word as a context and catalyst for the piece.

While starting from the specificity of a single-user environment as both a creative and exhibition space, TERMINAL also asks what we choose to use computers for, how this is limited or shaped by the interfaces we access, and how making projects under different technological structures can be figured amidst a wider set of material concerns. The investigation supposes that different hardware, software, operating systems, and user environments have offered specific opportunities and limits for expression, and that artists in turn have created works that respond in unique ways. The ongoing erasure of user control in favour of the ease and simplicity of seamless design experiences has been elsewhere taken up as an impetus for engaging in better understandings of web- and screen-based work. It is hoped that these practices might foreground how a conscious adoption of technology and knowledge of its limitations can alter the possibilities for creation. Perhaps these lesser-known historical works will also offer suggestions of how creative practices might wrest control toward fruitful artistic ends and offer viewers, readers or users an opportunity to contemplate and question the nature of the role these interfaces play in our daily lives.

-- TERMINAL 2.0 --

Where command line interfaces end, graphical user interfaces begin: a virtual working space that opened up new possibilities for digital drawing and animation. TERMINAl 2.0 takes up this phase in computer progress through the Amiga, a family of personal computers sold by Commodore in the 1980s and 1990s. In this context, the Amiga stands in for many models of home computer that were avidly competing for the attention of users interested in graphics. The capabilities of an Amiga made it ideal for multitasking, and it was sold as a ‘multi-media’ machine. Early demonstrations foregrounded its potential as a creative tool, including an infamous 1985 launch event featuring Andy Warhol using the computer to ‘paint’ a digital portrait of Debbie Harry.

Mindful of such stories of pop-technology lore, the second installation in the TERMINAL series turns toward the problem of nostalgia, and hype. Technology and its uses are frequently found to be the subject of outlandish claims: be they ideals of a technological revolution or defining the use of one machine over another as ‘cool.’ Such projections have had a tendency to fetishize design over functionality, focusing on technology as an extension of style, as much or even more than as a tool to extend human behaviours.

Humble tools for creativity and expression, like the software Deluxe Paint, mark an early moment in an ensuing explosion of graphics capabilities. Today, the widespread manifestation of our ability to render digital images can appear as a practical collapse of virtual and physical visual cultures. It is almost quaint to remember a time when moving images on a computer screen were a novelty. This seemingly all-pervasive new standard of human-machine interaction (be it at a desk, in a car, at a bank machine or in our new extensions into the Internet of Things) can at times be alarming, sickening and disruptive.

This project asks for a return to early graphics-capable devices, to think both about technology and its uses but also to view its results. At the Western Front, inside a tiny room now hangs a single framed print of a digital painting, Three Cats in a Tree(2016) by Barry Doupé, Mark Pellegrino’s animation exploring early BBS culture, G.I.R.L.(2013) and Marisa Olson’s (Untitled)(2016) from the series Time Capsules, a golden Amiga 500 that has been gilded into irreversible obsolescence. Such items together in this space extol on technology’s appeals as features, virtues or a ruses, depending on how one looks.

Installed on this site are two digital animations - Vhery(2013) by Doupé and the Amiga Shorts(2013) series by Amy Lockhart, whose sparse idiosyncratic styles thrive within this context. Taking up this online environment as a natural component of thinking about computers, TERMINAL aims to foreground the locations of works and of viewers and the ways in which computers act as conduits for cultural consumption.

With this in mind, the online venue also hosts a newly commissioned essay by Clint Enns reflecting on the historical progression of graphical user interfaces. Nostalgia for the Digital Revolution: Interfacing with Obsolescence picks up on the themes introduced here, working through them in detail, and sheds more light on the entanglement of artists with computers as creative tools that shall continue to be the focus of this series.

I encourage you to linger here for the duration of the videos, and to consider the essay's explorations through some of the visual roots of our present day condition.



Artists: Brion Gysin, Desearch Repartment, Barry Doupé, Amy Lockhart, Tiziana La Melia, bpNichol, Marisa Olson, Mark Pellegrino, Skawennati

Writers: Allison Collins, Clint Enns, Mikhel Proulx, Jean-Paul Kelly

Designer: Jake Lim

Website Coding: Jayme Cochrane

Software Programming Support: Justin Filip

Project Assistants: Nathan Marsh, Gabi Dao

Technical Direction: Ben Wilson


This project has been made possible by a grant from the Canada Council for the Arts, which last year invested $153 million to bring the arts to Canadians throughout the country.



Works by Amy Lockhart, Mark Pellegrino and Barry Doupé made using the Amiga were originally facilitated and commissioned by the Toronto Animated Image Society (TAIS) as part of the project Hello Amiga (2012). Hello Amiga was curated by Madi Piller and distributed on behalf of TAIS by Vtape.


Barry Doupé

Barry Doupé is a Vancouver based artist primarily working with computer animation. He graduated from the Emily Carr University in 2004 with a Bachelor of Media Arts majoring in animation. His films use imagery and language derived from the subconscious; developed through writing exercises and automatic drawing. He often creates settings within which a character’s self-expression or action is challenged and thwarted, resulting in comic, violent and poetic spectacles. His films have been screened throughout Canada and Internationally including the Ann Arbor Film Festival (Ann Arbor, Michigan), International Film Festival Rotterdam (Rotterdam, the Netherlands), Anthology Film Archives (NY, New York), Lyon Contemporary Art Museum (Lyon, France), Pleasure Dome (Toronto, ON), MOCCA (Toronto, ON), Whitechapel Gallery (London, UK), Centre Pompidou (Paris, France) and the Tate Modern (London, UK).

Brion Gysin

Brion Gysin (1916–1986) was a painter, writer, sound poet, and performance artist born in Taplow, Buckinghamshire and raised in Edmonton, Alberta. He is perhaps best known for his “re-discovery” of the cut-up technique, further developed by his friend, the novelist William S. Burroughs. Gysin travelled widely, living in Vancouver, Tangier, New York and Paris. With the engineer Ian Sommerville Gysin developed the Permutation Poems and invented the Dreamachine, a flickering visual device designed to be viewed with the eyes closed in order to induce hallucinatory states. His work has been exhibited and collected extensively. The New Museum mounted a comprehensive retrospective of his work in 2010.

Tiziana La Melia

Tiziana La Melia (b. 1982, Palermo IT) is an interdisciplinary artist working in painting, installation, film and writing.   To date, La Melia’s work has explored through painting, installation and writing, the relationship between proprioceptive experience and the way that thought becomes form; language digresses; things become subjects, subjects become things; hyphens, metonymy, stutters, and slime form a mutating and nonlinear poetics. Her work is populated by angelfish, losers, dropouts, and spinsters—who are preoccupied by fate, weather, health, time, food, perfume, writing, technology and pets. The characters in the work evoke an agency that is both fixed and malleable. Titles and form evoke theatrical structures to navigate the slippage between objects and language, plotting to blur the dialectic between the utilitarian and the lyrical.

Her work has exhibited, screened and performed in Los Angeles, New York, Toronto, Ohio, Stockholm, Nevers, Montreal, and Vancouver.  Her writing has appeared in C Magazine, The Organism for Poetic Research, Pyramid Power, The Capilano Review and Poetry is Dead. Forthcoming activities include a solo exhibitions at 8-11 (Toronto) and Anne Baurrault (Paris). La Melia was awarded the 2014 RBC Painting Prize. She lives and works in Vancouver.

Amy Lockhart

Amy Lockhart is a filmmaker, animator and artist. Her animations have screened at festivals nationally and internationally, including the Ann Arbor Film Festival and International Animation Festival in Hiroshima, Japan. Lockhart has received fellowship at the National Film Board of Canada and support from the Canada Council for the Arts. She currently lives and works in Chicago, Il.


Barrie Phillip Nichol (1944-1988), was a Canadian writer, engaged with what he called ‘borderblur.’ In his lifetime he wrote poetry, novels, short fiction, children’s books, musical scores, comic book art, collage/assemblage, and computer texts.  In the early 1960s Nichol produced fiction and lyric poetry; he later garnered international attention with his hand-drawn concrete and visual poems that explore the material, tangible, and aural qualities of the word and the letter. An inveterate collaborator, he worked with the sound poetry ensemble The Four Horsemen; Steve McCaffery as part of the Toronto Research Group (TRG); the visual artist Barbara Caruso; and countless other writers. In the mid 1980s he became a successful writer for the children’s television show Fraggle Rock.  Throughout his career Nichol discovered innovative ways to play with narrative, often as hilarious reworkings or re-mixings of conventions within genres ranging from the novel to the western, the detective story, the romance novel, the journal entry and the autobiography. He subverted formal and thematic conventions— effortlessly moving between genres, blurring and experimenting with generic boundaries.

Marisa Olson

Marisa Olson's work combines performance, video, net art, sound, drawing, and installation to address the cultural history of technology, gender experiences, and the politics of participation within pop culture.  She is a founding member of the Nasty Nets "internet surf club" whose new DVD premiered at the New York Underground Film Festival and toured to Sundance. Her work has been presented by the Whitney Museum of American Art, Centre Pompidou-Paris, New Museum of Contemporary Art, Venice Biennale, Samek Museum, Bard CCS, and elsewhere. Olson studied Fine Art at Goldsmiths College, History of Consciousness at UC Santa Cruz, and Rhetoric at UC Berkeley. Her work has been written about in Artforum, Art in America, Folha de Sao Paolo, Liberation-Paris, Dis, Interview, and her own critical writing has appeared in Aperture, Flash Art, Art Review, Afterimage, The Guardian, and Art on Paper, and numerous books in multiple languages. She is the former Editor for both Rhizome and Camerawork and has curated projects at the Guggenheim, SFMOMA, White Columns, and Artists Space.

Mark Pellegrino

Mark Pellegrino is a Toronto-based, multi-disciplinary artist and art technician. His digital practice has utilized antiquated video equipment, emulated computer systems and 3d animation to explore the history, discourse and anomalies of the video medium. His varied practice has shown around Toronto and includes illustration, printing, animation and installation

Mikhel Proulx

Mikhel Proulx researches contemporary art and digital culture. He comes from Indigenous and settler ancestry. His research considers Queer and Indigenous artists working with networked media, and he has curated exhibitions across Canada, Europe, and the Middle East. Mikhel is a PhD student and faculty member in the department of Art History at Concordia University, Montreal.